Correlations between in vitro and in vivo data (IVIVC) are often used during pharmaceutical development in order to reduce development time and optimize the. This presentation gives a bird’s eye view on Dissolution in context with IVIVC. It discusses various levels of Correlations currently in practice. Invitro Invivo study & their correlation shortens the drug development period, economizes the resources and leads to improved product quality. Increased activity.

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This approach is called direct convolution. Using the basket method the common agitation is rpm; with the paddle method, it is rpm and 25 rpm for suspension [ 5 ].

It is expected that, in the nonlinear case, the use of a differential equation based method would lead to more accurate predictions of plasma concentration. An example of internal predictability is presented in Figure The above corfelation in achieving the widest possible dissolution specification allows majority of batches to pass and is possible only if a valid Level A model is available [ 24 ].

IVIVC – Wikipedia

The process of setting dissolution specifications in the corrdlation of an IVIVC starts by obtaining the reference pivotal clinical batch dissolution profile. Validated IVIVC is also serves as justification for a biowaivers in filings of a Level 3 or Type II in Europe cirrelation, either during scaleup or post approval, as well as for line extensions e.

Frequent samples should be withdrawn to obtain a smooth dissolution profile leading to complete dissolution within the dosing interval of the test product in humans.

Having an established IVIVC correltaion help avoid bioequivalence studies by using the dissolution profile from the changed formulation, and subsequently predicting the in vivo concentration-time profile [ 2441 ]. Out of this product development cycle and In vivo characterization and, of course, extensive in vitro testing is often developed what can be referred to as retrospective IVIVC. Review Article Open Access.

The Wagner Nelson method is less complicated than the Loo- Riegelman as there is no requirement for intravenous data. Generally, f1 values up to 15 and f2 values greater than 50 ensure sameness or equivalence of the two curves. The novel drug delivery systems have been developed such as OROS, liposomes, niosomes, pharmacosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, implants, in situ gelling system, organogels, transdermal drug delivery systems, parenteral depots, etc.


An approximated visual scheme of chyme transit in the Golem apparatus.

But being a drug of limited bioavailability, due to high variability in first-pass metabolism, makes it difficult to correlate the conventional in vitro tests results with blood concentration in time or other pharmacokinetic parameters.

In vitro models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms.

In Vitro?In Vivo Correlation (IVIVC): A Strategic Tool in Drug Development

A simple aqueous dissolution media is also recommended for BCS Class I drug as this type of drug exhibits lack of influence of dissolution medium properties [ 536 ].

Certainly, step 1 activity should culminate in a pilot PK study. Correlatikn methodology of establishing similarity or dissimilarity of plasma drug concentrations profile is commonly known as bioequivalence testing.

Figure 7 depicts deconvolution results for two formulations of both designs and the lack satisfactory level of correlation. The fraction of dose absorbed then can be predicted based on these three parameters. Diffusion-dissolution, corre,ation retardation, osmosis, etc. Correlatiom key procedure here was a deconvolution of a PK profile into the cumulative curve describing fraction absorbed in vivo.

On the other hand, extracting dissolution profiles from blood drug concentration-time profile is known as the deconvolution process left to right [8]. Commonly the following experimental conditions should be considered in this regard.

In vitro – in vivo correlation: from theory to applications.

The establishment of correlation needs, as described in the FDA or Igiv definitions, to use various parameters summarized in following table: This is calculated using the equation The BE studies of the five generic formulations were evaluated in four crossover PK studies, performed by other contract workplaces: Based on the IVIVC model, the predicted fraction of the drug absorbed is calculated from the observed fraction of the drug dissolved.

This class of drugs present significant problems for effective oral delivery. In case of internal validation, testing formulation was included in model building corrslation. However, the difficulty arises in correlafion variation to be allowed around each time point [ 37 ]. Level Ibiv correlation is the most preferred to achieve; since it allows bio waiver for changes in manufacturing site, raw material suppliers, and minor changes in formulation. Biopharmaceutics Classification System BCS is a fundamental guideline for determining correlstion conditions under which in-vitro, in-vivo correlations are expected [ 25 ].


Under these circumstances, for complete evaluation and subsequent full application of the IVIVC, prediction of error externally is recommended [ 23 ]. However, study of these effects was beyond the scope of the present study. To insure bioavailability for this case, the dissolution profile must be well defined and reproducible. A dissolution profile of percentage or fraction of drug dissolved versus time then can be determined.

The dissolution medium should not be de-aerated. Obtaining dissolution results by altering testing experimental conditions may void the test for IVIVC purposes.

The gastric medium containing both the dissolved and undissolved contents of the dosage form was gradually moved by the peristaltic pump from stomach into the duodenal compartment and then into the following two compartments an approximate scheme of chyme transfer in Golem is depicted in Figure 2. It is not a formal correlation but it is a semi quantitative qualitative analysis and rank order correlation and is not considered useful for regulatory purpose but can be serves as an aid in the development of a formulation or processing procedure [ 57 ] Table 1.

From perspective of biorelevancy, the Golem apparatus is one of the corrslation most complex dissolution apparatuses described to date other two being TIM-1 and Dynamic Gastric Model [ 3 ]. This classification system was devised by Amidon et al.

But is a task that can be time consuming and complex [ 12 ]. With the proliferation of modified-release cofrelation, it becomes necessary coorrelation examine the concept of IVIVC in greater depth.